Water’s high dielectric constant may cause major issues at high frequencies if substrates are not water-resistant. Small variations in properties have larger impacts at high frequencies, complicating the design process. The ideal substrate would be totally consistent across frequencies, temperatures, and moisture levels.

As part of the 5G/6G MAESTRO project, work on this page is supported by the Office of Advanced Manufacturing in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), under the Federal Award ID Number 70NANB22H050.

Return to topic overview